Information System and technologies have become a vital component of successful businesses and organizations.
Information System means an interconnected set of information resources under the same direct management control that shares common functionality. A system typically includes hardware, software, information, data, applications, communications and people, while an information system is the arrangement of people, data, processes, presentation of data and information technology that supports our everyday needs. It is actually technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions, as well as drawing conclusions from such expressions. The computer technology is used for implementing information systems.
TYPES OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM
Information System can be divided in two basic forms
1. OPERATIONS SUPPORT
It is further subdivided into
O Transaction Processing System (TPS)
O Enterprise Collaboration System
O Process Control System
2. MANAGEMENT SUPPORT
It is further subdivided into the following
O Management Information System (MIS)
O Decision Support System (DSS)
O Executive Support System (ESS)
TOOLS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM
The steps which are involved in the development of an Information System are:
Analysis, Feasibility Study, System Design, Testing, Implementation, Documentation.
TRENDS IN INFORMATION SYSTEM:
It is generally accepted that information is a vital commodity for the successful operation of today's organizations. Nowadays modern business organizations are using computerized information systems in order to obtain desired information. However, as the technology advances rapidly the main issue is how can an organization should effectively use such an information system which its management sometimes can be unpredictable in order to effectively help the whole organization structure to improve and take the most out of it.
It seems fairly obvious that Information systems have played an important linking role even before the advent of the Internet. Thus, for example, the possibilities offered by Information systems have strongly influenced the way managers were able to exercise control and therefore constituted an important factor in the organization of large-scale enterprise and their geographical extension. The same is true for governments and their statistical instrument. The recent integration of computer networks and electronic data exchange facilitated the creation of common databases and policies among Governments, speeding up developments, which had started earlier. It also created new possibilities for business, for example enabling companies to develop new organizational practices (eg just-in-time).
However, the role of Information systems in the organization is shifting to support business processes rather than individual functions. The focus is outwards to customers, rather than inwards to procedures. Businesses are changing more and more quickly.
This poses a challenge to existing Information systems, which are often inappropriately structured to meet these needs. It also poses a challenge to the people who design, work and use these systems, since they may hold outdated assumptions.
To ensure the services provided by Information systems whenever needed and their failure will not cause catastrophic disaster their reliability and efficiency becomes extremely important. Imagine what would happen when a banking system malfunctions due to some critical faults in the system or when a healthcare information system provides wrong advice for patients.
It is even not over-saying that our lives are already under control of computer systems but their reliability and efficiency has become extremely important
APPLICATIONS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM:
There is a wide range of applications of information system that are implemented in today's world. To name a few such as
1. Sales analysis, production performance and cost trend
2. Product Pricing, profitability forecasting and risk
3. Sales and inventory processing and accounting System
4. Geographic Information systems
5. Health Care Information Systems
6. Banking Information System
7. Petroleum Refining System
8. Power Generation System
9. Steel Production System